Our findings showed good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Spanish PICCOLO domain and total scores, with similar values to those found in samples from Turkey (Bayoğlu et al., 2013) and the United States (Roggman et al., 2013a). Other observational measures of parenting that require complex coding or rating scales often require substantial training time for observers to accurately use the measures (Fuligni and Brooks-Gunn, 2013). In contrast, PICCOLO is a checklist of observable behaviors that can be learned relatively quickly to achieve accurate ratings of parenting interactions with children. Early positive parenting interactions promote child development, and specific parenting behaviors that lead to better developmental outcomes have been identified (Bradley and Corwyn, 2002; Mahoney, 2009; Warren et al., 2010).
Two native speakers of Spanish, both experts in Developmental Psychology, translated the original scale from English into Spanish. The back-translated form was evaluated by two of the PICCOLO authors , who provided suggestions for refinements. The final adapted Spanish version was produced after incorporating their suggestions. Long Creek production is expected to start in Q and likewise just2trade minimum deposit peak around 20,000 boe/d in late 2021, Barrett said. That will be achieved on a total capital drilling and completion budget of $625 million-$725 million, and including land, facilities, infrastructure and other items, is $765 million-$925 million, Papa said. Energy markets are highly volatile in the best of times and even more so when industry tensions are high, like today.
While not used in the present study, the BSID-III also includes a Social-Emotional Scale and Adaptive Behavior Scale, which are questionnaires for caregivers. The Bayley Scales are standardized and have good inter-rater reliability and are valid for predicting current and future development. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the PICCOLO in a large sample of Spanish mothers and children aged from 10 to 47 months, in order to validate the tool for use in the Spanish population, for research or applied purposes. The datasets for this study are not made publicly available because parents have allowed to our research team to video record their children, but not to publish any data or image. Data Availability StatementThe datasets for this study are not made publicly available because parents have allowed to our research team to video record their children, but not to publish any data or image.
There has been a lot going on in the energy patch lately, including rising oil and natural gas prices. Relation of maternal cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusive behavior during head start to children’s kindergarten cognitive abilities. Aff, Affection domain; Resp, Responsiveness domain; Enc, Encouragement domain; Teach, Teaching domain. For Q2, the company’s crude oil production increased 38% to 43,105 b/d compared to the same quarter in 2018. In fact, while the massive price moves that smaller energy names can experience are exciting, most investors will probably be better off sticking with the largest, financially strongest, and most diversified names in the energy sector today. Centennial, Gran Tierra, Antero, and Range could just as easily see their prices tank sharply on news that OPEC ups production more than expected.
Unless you have a crystal ball that will tell you which way OPEC is going, erring on the side of caution is probably the best bet. And it’s a very big deal, with natural gas prices in Europe and Asia suggesting an equivalent oil price of more than $190 per barrel according to Bloomberg. That’s a shocking number that comes with material implications, because it suggests that U.S. drillers, like Centennial, Antero, and Range, amarkets mt4 can earn more money by sending their production overseas. Oil and natural gas are global commodities that generally get sold where they get the highest bids, so this isn’t unusual, even though it could be troublesome for major consumers, like electric power companies, refiners, and anyone who drives a car. Until the supply/demand imbalance eases, energy prices, and by extension the stocks of E&P names, could be exciting.
Shares of these exploration and production companies all took off this morning, as the world continues to deal with a broad energy crunch. WPX, which operates in both the Permian and the Williston Basins, said its Q2 production increases were roughly similar in both basins. Permian production came in at 96,600 boe/d in Q2, up 30% from the same period in 2018. Williston production was at 63,000 boe/d during Q2, up 25% from year-ago levels of 50,600 boe/d. WPX now expects to produce 160, ,000 boe/d this year, up5% at midpoint from its previous 149,000 boe/d-161,000 boe/d target.
Centennial raised its oil and total production targets for the year by single digit percentages while decreasing its rig count by one to five total next month, owing to “efficiencies” seen so far in 2019, company CEO Mark Papa said during his company’s quarterly call. This headline only article is a sample of real-time intelligence Benzinga Pro traders use to win in the markets everyday. The adaptation process of families with children with intellectual disabilities in Catalonia. Genetic and environmental processes in young children’s resilience and vulnerability to socioeconomic deprivation. Aff, Affection domain; Resp, Responsiveness domain; Enc, Encouragement domain; Teach, eaching domain; Total, otal score on the Spanish PICCOLO. Consent was obtained from the authors of the original PICCOLO (Roggman et al., 2013a) and publisher to develop the Spanish version.
Using a two-sided test, with 5% significance and a power of 80%, the required sample size to detect a correlation ≥ 0.32 is approximately 74. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between age and PICCOLO scores. For independent samples, the Student’s t test was used to compare mean Spanish PICCOLO scores according to child gender.
Although these tools can be useful for gaining knowledge about parental competences, they have some limitations that are common to all measures based on self-reporting, which include limitations on validity. The Spanish validation of the PICCOLO is a contribution in this regard, as the PICCOLO appears to meet these requirements. The original PICCOLO reliability is good, with an average of 0.77 inter-rater reliability correlations between pairs of observers for total score (0.80 for affection, 0.76 for responsiveness, 0.73 for encouragement and 0.69 for teaching).
These differences may reflect different cultural values about parenting or about the parents’ goals for their children’s developmental outcomes (Tuttle et al., 2012). With respect to the relationship between positive parenting interactions and child gender, our results showed no statistically significant differences between boys and girls for the 4xcube mean PICCOLO scores, as expected based on previous studies (Bayoğlu et al., 2013; Roggman et al., 2013a). Parenting interaction characteristics depend on both personal and cultural factors. Parenting practices are diverse among cultures and reflect cultural child rearing expectations as well as cultural beliefs and values about child development.
About The Motley Fool
This coding system provides microanalytic measurements of the early dyadic interaction in a free play situation and has adequate reliability in Spanish and English samples (Trenado et al., 2014). Also, in Spain, Velasco et al. developed another family context assessment instrument (Etxadi-Gangoiti scale), which also includes some items of direct observation of parenting interactions. Although these direct observation measures tend to have good reliability and validity they are time intensive to code and few have been used cross-culturally.
- In fact, while the massive price moves that smaller energy names can experience are exciting, most investors will probably be better off sticking with the largest, financially strongest, and most diversified names in the energy sector today.
- Two native speakers of Spanish, both experts in Developmental Psychology, translated the original scale from English into Spanish.
- Environmental stimulation, parental nurturance and cognitive development in humans.
- That will be achieved on a total capital drilling and completion budget of $625 million-$725 million, and including land, facilities, infrastructure and other items, is $765 million-$925 million, Papa said.
- A longitudinal study of the relationship of maternal autonomy support to children’s adjustment and achievement in school.
Further construct validation evidence was compiled by examining the association between the PICCOLO scores and expected parenting-related constructs, such as child age and child gender. In this study, teaching domain and total PICCOLO scores were positively correlated with child age, as also found in the original PICCOLO sample (Roggman et al., 2013b) and the Turkish sample (Bayoğlu et al., 2013). In the Turkish sample, a statistically significant negative correlation was also found between child age and scores for the affection domain, which means that affection was higher with younger children. However, in the Spanish sample, the correlation between those variables was not significant.
The correlation of total score between observers of different ethnicities averaged 0.80 (0.78 for affection, 0.68 for responsiveness, 0.66 for encouragement and 0.75 for teaching). The analysis of Cronbach’s Alpha for the total instrument was 0.91 (0.78 for affection, 0.75 for responsiveness, 0.77 for encouragement and 0.80 for teaching) and the instrument had good results for construct and predictive validity (Roggman et al., 2013a). The PICCOLO has also been used to observe parents interacting with children with a disability, showing both reliability and validity (Innocenti et al., 2013). The first author, who was trained by the authors of the original PICCOLO, trained the raters for this study. Observer trainees read about the content and purpose of the measure (during a 3-h session) and watched and discussed four video recordings .
Untangling the links of parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child outcomes. The authors would like to thank all participants, parents and families, and collaborating staff who took part in this research. Finally, although this study specifically concerned validation of the scale within a sample from Spain, replication of the validation and reliability procedures in other Spanish-speaking samples could extend the utility of this scale. We expect that the Spanish PICCOLO would be useful in other countries with substantial Spanish speaking populations.
For this analysis, Pearson’s correlations between mothers’ PICCOLO scores and children’s BSID-III scores were computed. Because the Spanish PICCOLO was developed using a model based on the original PICCOLO domains (Roggman et al., 2013a), the dimensionality of the instrument was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. We tested a model with four first-order factors corresponding to the four hypothesized domains of parenting behaviors , and a second-order factor corresponding to a general factor of positive parenting interactions with children. Figure 1 shows the path diagram of the confirmatory factor analysis with items loading on one of the four domains, and domains loading on the general factor.
At the end of the training sessions, the observers watched and coded four to six additional video-recorded interactions to establish reliability (3–6 h). The observers were considered to have completed their training satisfactorily when the percentage inter-rater agreement was equal to or above 80%. First, our participants were all mothers; thus, our results might not be generalizable to other caregivers such as fathers or grandparents. In future studies the PICCOLO should be validated in other populations since gender differences in parental behaviors have been established (Cabrera et al., 2017). Secondly, our results come from observing mother-child interactions at home, so other settings where teacher interactions with young children take place should be tested as well . Finally, concurrent criterion-related validity was examined via Pearson’s correlations between mothers’ PICCOLO scores and children’s scores on the Bayley scales of infant development.
The analyses of the 29 original PICCOLO items showed that two items should be eliminated due to discrimination indices below the recommended limits. However, in item analysis it is important to keep in mind the main purpose of the instrument. The PICCOLO was designed as a useful parenting measure that predicts positive child outcomes. Indeed, the items contained in the PICCOLO were selected because they represented positive parenting interactions that research and theory suggested were related to children’s development (i.e., the items are causal indicators of children’s outcomes). As Bradley pointed out, using procedures that are standard practice in constructing scales (e.g., dropping items with low item-to-total correlations or weak factor loadings) can be a mistake for measures composed of causal indicators. Accordingly, we decided to include all of the original PICCOLO items for the Spanish version in order to maximize content validity and potential criterion-related validity, at the expense of a lower reliability of the measures.
Centennial, Continental raise 2019 output guidance, drop rigs but keep capex steady
For infants and toddlers, a responsive home environment that includes good parenting and positive parent-child interactions is important for child development. The Spanish version of the PICCOLO, an observational measure of parent-child interactions for infants and toddlers, meets the criteria for a reliable and valid measurement instrument of mothers’ parenting interactions with children aged from 10 to 47 months. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the PICCOLO make it appropriate for general research purposes but also for program evaluation of home-visiting and other parenting-support interventions in Spain. For early intervention professionals in Spain, an observational measure such as the PICCOLO may be very useful and can help to better establish and expand a family-centered approach in Early Interventions programs (Mas et al., 2016; Vilaseca et al., 2017).
The company produced about 331,400 boe/d in Q2, up 17% from the same period in 2018. Production included roughly 194,000 boe/d from the Bakken Shale in North Dakota and Montana, up 23% from the same 2018 period, and 128,700 boe/d from the SCOOP-STACK play in Oklahoma, up 10% versus the same year-before period. “We’re not sure how many rigs we’re going to be running in 2020, and we’re going to let the oil market dictate that.” Big Bakken Shale producer Continental Resources and midcap Permian Basin maven Centennial Resource Development both expect to produce more oil and natural gas this year than earlier forecasted even though they plan to keep their spending within original 2019 plans.